Project Facilitation Tools
Project Facilitation Tools and Methods
Outils et méthodes de facilitation de projets
Formation en Leadership et Management Transversal
Leadership is like an open book, because we all see it in action throughout our lives. Communicating a vision, developing a sense of purpose, managing conflicts, building a team, facilitating change, demonstrating integrity, interpreting events, inspiring action, all of these skills can be developed. Real leadership skills are like any others - they take years of practice. Even charismatic leadership and the arts of being a successful follower are full of facets that can be learned and put into practice.
Project Portfolio Management
Project portfolio management is about managing resources and deploying them on projects based on the overall business priorities. To achieve such visibility, the resource data need to be summed up from project level to program or intermediate level, to department level and then to corporate level. The process highlights that, as well as priority projects, there are critical activities on non-priority projects. But the real value drives from the openness that the process encourages concerning the allocation of resources based on priorities.
Learning from experience is one of the most important areas where companies can build a strong project management process. The end of a project is a learning opportunity, but so few projects really seize this opportunity. It requirs the presence of the key stakeholders and there willingness to study the story of the project, comparing what actually happened with what was planned: in particular comparing the risks that were analyzed with the risks that occurred, the estimates with the costs. Furthermore, the organization and structure of the project can provide pointers for the future. The learning process needs to be well prepared and followed up so that the lessons learned can be recycled into future projects.
Hebrew and Arabic align to meet the deadline
A mobile phone project was six weeks away from completion. Then suddenly there was a new requirment – for another language option to be added to the menu. The language requested was Hebrew, the department doing the requesting, Marketing, who else?
Of course, the project manager wanted nothing to do with it. After all, with the launch date so close, such a change could only delay the project. But, Marketing had a cast iron case. The leading network operator in Israel had promised to make the product a standard, but obviously only under condition that the menus includ their own language.
The potential gains were huge. At this point, one development engineer was of the opinion that other languages such as Arabic should be includd, since both Hebrew and Arabic share a common characteristic, which is that they read from right to left instead of from left to right.
A linguistics expert took this a step further: a surprising number of the world’s languages also go from right to left; why stop at Hebrew and Arabic? To be short: suddenly, no two people in the team shared the same opinion. Yesterday, they had been a team sharing the same views on the project priorities. Today, there was no longer a team. Because of the change proposal, consensus had exploded.
A workshop was convened. At the end of the workshop, the team was back in shape, the priorities concurred. The phone would be launched on time, and the menu would includ Hebrew. However, several low priorities, like the play station, had been dropped from the bottom of the menu, to be includd probably in the next version of the mobile phone.
Using tools that shape the way we think
Although everyone uses the same desk top tools, everyone uses them in quite different ways. The tools have become second nature, but most people are not specifically trained; they learn through contact and intuition.
When spreadsheets arrived in the late 1970s, some people found them almost impossible to understand. Each cell was addressed like a coordinate. It was like using a map in digital form without the benefit of the cartographic layout. Now the tools have become part of everyone’s everyday work, but because they work in different ways, there are features that people use intensively and others that people know nothing about.
Even in the most common word processor you can find a function that produces a summary of a document. It works remarkably well on some documents, less well on others. It can be a very useful function when trying to sift some key phrases from large quantities of text, perhaps gathered using a web search. It’s a feature that specialist tools have developed. But the main point is that no two people work inside the most common word processor in exactly the same way.
This has important consequences for a project. People can misunderstand each other and be at cross-purposes. The remedy for a team is to develop shared ways of using the tools. This can be an easy win. And when the technology moves ahead, you need to think again as a team. When people get used to GPS positioning, it changes the way they think about maps, and the way they work also.
They say that people who grew up with a technology, perhaps learning it between 12 and 22 can speak it like a mother tongue. What you learn afterwards is less intuitive, and when you learn a technology later on, it's more like a foreign language.
Learning opportunities from cans to photocopiers to trains
A Japanese manufacturer of printing equipment and photocopiers set itself a most challenging goal: to design a desktop photocopier at a mere 5% of the cost of the standard office photocopier. Naturally, the company engineers thought that management had taken leave of their senses. How could the project manager get his team to believe that the task was possible?
Inside a photocopier is a round cylinder, called the drum. It’s the most expensive item and can be considered as the key cost driver. The project manager turned a can of soft drink over in his hands at the next project meeting. He held it up. “What do you think is the cost of this?”
Now the team knew for sure that management must have lost its collective head, again. "They think that they can put a soft drinks can inside an instrument like a photocopier." “No”, said the project manager, “All I’m asking from you is to reduce the costs of the drum to one twentieth. The price of this aluminium can is only one ten thousandth of the cost of one of our drums”. From that point onwards, he had started to win the team around.
At another factory, making trains, the Japanese guru of quality management looked at the massive machine used for assembling the wheels. Two great blocks rose on each side of each wheel, clasping the large discs into position. Rods fastened the flanks into place. He was pensive. “Have you ever looked inside a photocopier?” Stupefaction was all around. “We don’t make photocopiers here”, was the reply.
In a consumer products company, making soft drinks, the operations director was present as the consultant told a story about a company manufacturing rail equipment that had succeeded on a project against all the odds. The experience illustrated that leadership on projects could take place at all levels. Unfortunately, the director stormed out half way through the presentation. “Doesn’t this consultant understand”, he exclaimed, “We’re a soft drinks company. We don’t make trains!” ! ! !
London Olympic Games and a challenged vision
On the 6th July 2005, the day that the 2012 Olympic Games were awarded to London, in competition against Paris, there was an explosion of joy in the United Kingdom. The next day was 7/7 and the explosion was in the London underground: from the heights of exuberance to the depths of anxiety.
Once the harrowing story of the bomb had been absorbed, a shaken Britain could once again return to its contemplation of the Olympic Games. By this time, there was a feeling of anti-climax. Discussions heated around the controversial costs of the games. Inevitably, the initial estimates were perceived as being insufficient.
Parliamentary committees and new reviews focused on the problem. Questions were asked about the way estimates had been devised and which assumptions had been used. As the arguments churned around, I had the feeling that the country had lost sight of the big picture. It was as if there was no vision.
It’s not at all surprising. According to the way the bid had been presented to the Olympic selection committee by Sebastian Coe and the London Olympic Organising Committee team, “London 2012’s ambition is to create a Games for everyone, where everyone is invited to take part, join in and enjoy the most exciting event in the world.”And the message in England was about the regeneration of London’s East End: “It will accelerate the most extensive transformation seen in London for more than a century.”
But people at home in England had another idea. The principle rival to London’s bid was Paris. It never takes more than a "Beat the French" objective to stir up the spirit of the English, and once attained to raise their spirits. However, once the Games had been won, that was it. "The French conquered: what next?" "Now we actually have to do the games!" And oh, there’s that cosmopolitan and participative thing as well. And then the bomb attack.
If you don’t have an adequate vision, then any discussions are going to converge around the costs. There’s no shared intention about the project, no agreement about which parts of the project are most important, about the priorities, the risks, the constraints, the opportunities. In other words, are the games to be about London essentially, or about Britain? Are young people to be encouraged, or regions, or particular sports, or ethic minorities? Where are investments to be made? What are the priorities? If no vision, then no purpose.
In order to get back to where they were on the 5th July 2005, the London Olympic team had to get back to their vision and to proclaim it loud and clear, why the games are important and what that means for every participant and every community in the United Kingdom. To articulate a vision statement, think about what really matters and then say it over and over again. One thing about a vision statement is that it has to be repeated in order to resonate. It should be authentic, as if it comes from the heart. That is because it encapsulates something of real importance for the people involved.
The vision statement should be unique and distinctive. It should resonate in terms of people's inner aspirations, not weak and tepid, beyond what everyone else is doing, inclusive and not distant. It’s not just “we’ll please our stakeholders”, but “we’ll change the world all together”.
For two most iconic visions that captured the spirit of their time, try in Youtube:
"I'd like to teach the world to sing in perfect harmony." And "1984 apple macintosh commercial". In fact advertisements can be very good at working on "vision".
Some vision statements are clearly expressed and remembered, “A PC on every desk” (Microsoft), others are implicit, “We’ll make work fun” (Apple). They are statements of intent and give a reason to exist. A vision is what binds people together and makes what they do seem truly worthwhile. A vision sets a project on the right track.
A workshop conjures up a magical aura, a fantasia of posters and maps, icebreakers and brainteasers. Sometimes, a workshop will be the crucible of decision-making at the heart of a tightly mapped project or a pressing crisis. Most workshops are okay, even pretty satisfactory. But a brilliant workshop can have a massive impact and furthermore can result in decisions that deliver. There’s an abundance of techniques, but what you need is a method that works for your organization. Our approach to facilitated workshops is to assist you to build a framework enabling an elastic and supple approach. Because once you get into a workshop, you can never tell what will happen, you have to be prepared for anything.
Enterprise Project Methodology
Organizations invest considerable sums to set up automated approaches to project management and considerable sums to install an enterprise-wide methodology, framework, and shared approach to project management. But, none of this will work unless staff members understand the methodology and above all want to use it. What’s often overlooked is that it is as important for the methodology to be appealing as it is to be understood, and the training course is an essential element to ensure that people know why and care why, as well as know what and know how. The effective management of change, growth and innovation is so important, that a training programme for an organizational methodology needs to be skilfully laid out and delightfully convincing. Each phase, activity, milestone, deliverable, role description must be integrated into the whole and related to the overall business purpose. And furthermore, people desire to know what is comprehensive enough to be effective, but concise enough to be interesting.
Transversality is the ability to work across functional boundaries, in multi-disciplinary teams and to achieve success on intercultural projects. Studies indicate that the ability of people to communicate across departmental boundaries is closely correlated with business effectiveness. Integrated project teams have been proven to be the leading ‘value improving practice’. The ultimate success factor is a company’s ability to operate effectively by creating unbeatable products and services. The boundaries are barriers. This workshop is preceded by an appraisal of the degree of knowledge and understanding that exists between departments and within a company’s operating structures, including the supply chain. It then proceeds with the exchange of information and the search for areas of future transparency, synergies and synchronisation.
Medley of Methods
Without method, there’s madness. To make breakthroughs in performance, products and processes, companies must review their thinking patterns. A methods workshop brings focus to the thinking process: the diagnosis of a situation, the search for solutions, the selection of best options and the planning and implementation of a course of action. A medley of methods is prepared in order to provide a best mix of approach according to the set of challenges that have been identified. The utility of the methodologies is demonstrated and the potential highlighted. Subsequently, a methodology framework is developed that serves to embed the methods into good practices.
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Il n'y a pas d'actions plus efficaces au sein d'une organisation que d'investir dans la gestion de projets. Il n'y a aucune autre domaine qui offre un rendement aussi important. Dans une région et un environnement de forte valeur ajoutée l'amélioration permanente de l'aptitude pour l'innovation et l'évolution de produits, de processus, de systèmes et de services s'impose comme un impératif. Et pourtant, traditionnellement c'est l'une des activités de l'organisation la moins investies; parce que la maîtrise des projets n'est pas une chose facile. Vous pouvez découvrir ci-dessous quelques'unes de nos formations, des méthodes et des idées d'innovation et d'évolution de l'art de gérer des projets :
Quâ€™est ce qui est exceptionnel dans les mĂ©thodes agiles ?
1) L’agile vise les vrais besoins métiers, même ceux qui se révèlent pendant le projet, et non simplement le respect d’un cahier de charges
La plupart des projets que les gens feront dans leur vie vont commencer avec une idée ou une vision, un problème à résoudre ou à un résultat à atteindre. Et dans de nombreux projets, les clients ne sont pas capables, ou même ne veulent pas être spécifiques au sujet des besoins qu'ils ne comprennent pas encore en détail, même quand ils ont une idée claire de l'objectif général et l’objet du projet.
C'est pourquoi, avec les méthodes agiles de management de projet, une démarche de définition des besoins est intégrée dans le projet via un processus d'élaboration progressive, d'expérimentation, d'analyse, de modélisation et de prototypage.
C'est un processus logique. Le projet devient un dialogue entre la technologie et le marché, les coûts et la valeur. Toutefois, il doit être piloté avec des méthodes évoluées.
Avec une approche agile la référence du projet est établie à un niveau global, et par conséquent le projet peut viser la meilleure adéquation des bénéfices par rapport aux coûts.
Quand la priorité consiste à respecter une date immuable et un coût objectif, les besoins les plus importants ne peuvent pas attendre ceux qui sont les moins importants. Le projet doit être géré différemment parce que le périmètre est en évolution constante.
Avec le client et l’entrepreneur travaillant étroitement ensemble afin de tailler les besoins au fur et à mesure que ceux-ci soient mieux compris, une structure et une organisation agiles aident à compréhension et à l’évolution des besoins dans certains domaines du projet, tandis que d’autres sont en train d’être développés ou mise en œuvres.
2) L’agile met les priorités les plus importantes et les plus pressantes devant les priorités facultatives.
La gestion de projet classique tend à traiter toutes les conditions comme si elles étaient de la même priorité. Ainsi le triangle des délais - coûts – qualité nous indique que si nous prenons moins de temps, ou investissons peu de ressources, alors une partie de la qualité devra être sacrifiée. L’agile ne marche pas comme ça. L’agile préfère dire que l'équilibre est à trouver entre délais, coûts et contenu. Ainsi le temps est abordé comme une ‘durée limitée’, et l'argent comme une caisse de coûts. C’est comme une valise que l’on veut préparer. Nous omettons ce qui est du moins important, mais parvenons toujours à finir à l'heure et dans l’espace disponible.
La notion de ‘durée limitée’ vient du monde du journalisme. Les journaux, comme les prévisions météorologiques, doivent être terminés et prêt à utiliser toujours à l'heure, même si ils ne sont jamais parfaits, mais contiennent plutôt l'information la plus importante que l’on peut construire avec la contrainte de temps. Ce qui reste à faire attendra à la prochaine version. Ainsi la qualité n’est pas dans la quantité de fonctions, mais dans l'importance et l’urgence de ces fonctions.
3) Les plans de projets agiles utilisent les tests pour réduire le risque le plus tôt possible
Les projets agiles sont de projets d’apprentissage. Dans un projet agile l'équipe enlève les inconnus, limite les incertitudes et amortie les menaces les plus ennuyeux dès que possible. Naturellement, elle va aussi optimiser les opportunités pour prendre des bonnes décisions avant de trop dépenser.
Dans un projet agile, l'équipe travaille d'abord à réaliser la bonne solution - en faisant la juste mesure an matière de réflexion, d'analyse, de modélisation et de prototypage - et tourne ensuite à faire bien la solution.
Dans un environnement de développement évolué, il existe des outils qui permettent à modéliser efficacement des produits, des processus, des systèmes et des services rapidement avant que des décisions irréversibles soient prises. Une équipe agile établit un plan de développement basé autour de la nécessité de validation fréquente, de vérification et de tests, afin de mieux comprendre : d’un perspectif métier (il sera utile), d'un angle de performance (il sera utilisable), d'un angle d'exécution (il sera utilisé), et d'un point de vue technique (il sera opérationnel).
4) Les projets agiles exigent une coopération étroite entre les clients et les fournisseurs
Des échanges constants exigent une connaissance de la valeur de la part des clients et des coûts de la part des fournisseurs. Un projet agile profite d’une bonne définition de rôles de sorte que le point de vue de client soit canalisé et les réponses de développeurs orchestrées. Le financement par l’organisation doit être représenté par un sponsor fort, tandis qu'un rôle visionnaire peut apporter un sens de convergence entre la vue technique et le point de vue métier. Dans un projet agile, les parties peuvent fonctionner à une distance physique à condition que toutes les parties puissent garder un œil sur la vue globale. Les projets agiles insistent sur l’importance des personnes dans les processus. Puisque l’objet global consiste à fournir des résultats, il devrait être possible de mesurer ces résultats en termes parlants pour l’entreprise et pour l'utilisateur.
5) Les projets agiles s’appuient sur une bonne conception
Une architecture idéale pour un projet agile est modulaire et sépare les composants qui sont susceptibles de rester stables et génériques, et qui seront invisibles aux utilisateurs, de ces composants qui seront volatils, qui doivent être adaptés selon les besoins du client, et qui sont visibles aux utilisateurs. Une bonne architecture agile tient compte de la nécessité de tester progressivement, de reproduire les modèles conceptuels dans la conception du système, de faciliter la formation, de tolérer des erreurs, de réutiliser des composants, de s’adapter à différents types d'utilisateurs, de redimensionner au fur et à mesure que des nouveaux utilisateurs adoptent le système, et enfin pour faciliter également l'évolution lorsque des nouveaux besoins émergent. L'agilité et les bons principes de conception sont complémentaires et vont de pair. L’un encourage l'autre.
Whatâ€™s special about Agile Project Management?
1) Agile is focused on overall business needs, not detailed specifications
Most of the projects that people will do in their lives will start with an idea or a vision, a problem to be solved or an outcome to be achieved. And In many projects, customers may be unable or even unwilling to be specific about requirments that they do not yet understand in detail, even when they have a clear idea of the overall purpose and motive for the project.
Therefore with agile project management methods the process of developing an understanding for the requirments is built into the project via a process of progressive elaboration, experimentation, analysis, modelling and prototyping.
This is a healthy process. The project becomes a dialogue between the technology and the market, the costs and the value. However, it needs to be managed in a different way.
With agile approaches the baseline is at a high level, at the level of business requirments, so long as these can be expressed in business terms as benefits, costs and risks.
On projects with a binding deadline and target cost, the most important requirments cannot afford to wait for the least important. The project must be managed differently, because the scope is constantly being reassessed.
With the client and the contractor working together in a partnering arrangement and refining the needs as those needs become better understood, an agile structure and organisation can help the specification to emerge and evolve in some areas of the project, whilst other areas are being developed or implemented.
2) Agile puts the most important and urgent priorities first
In many projects management tends to treat all requirments as if they had the same priority. Thus the time – cost – quality triple constraint tells us that if we take less time, or invest fewer resources, then some quality will have to be sacrificed. Agile doesn’t work like this. Agile reinforces the principle that the quality equation is in the trade off between time, cost and scope. Time is handled like a ‘timebox’, and cash like a ‘cashbox’. It’s a bit like packing a suitcase. We leave out what is least important, but still manage to finish on time and within the available resources.
The word ‘timebox’ comes from the world of journalism. Newspapers, like the weather forecast, have to be out on the streets always on time, even if they are never perfect, but instead contain the most important information available within the time constraint, and everything else has to wait until the next version. Thus quality is not in the quantity of functions, but in the importance and the urgency of the functions.
3) Agile project plans use testing to reduce the most important risks early
Agile projects are learning projects. In an agile project the team sets out to remove the most troublesome unknowns, uncertainties and threats as early as possible, whilst of course seeking to optimise opportunities by being able to make the right decisions before spending too much.
In an agile project, the team first works on making the right solution – by doing just enough brainstorming, analysing, modelling and prototyping – and then switches to making the solution right.
In a modern development environment, there are a great number of tools that are suitable for producing cost effective models of products, processes, systems and services early before irreversible decisions have been made. An agile team builds a plan based around the need for frequent checking, verifying and testing, in order to gain understanding: from a business perspective (will it be useful), a usability angle (will it be usable), a performance angle (will it be used), and from a technical standpoint (will it be operational).
4) Agile projects requir close cooperation between users and developers
Constant feedback demands constant input on value, from the customers, and on cost, from the developers. An agile project also benefits from good role definition so that the customer viewpoint is channelled and the developer response orchestrated. The organisational funding view should be represented by a strong sponsor, whilst a visionary role can contribute a sense of convergence between the technical view and the business standpoint. In an agile project, parties can work at a physical distance so long as all parties are able to keep an eye on the big picture. Agile projects emphasis the role of people in processes. Because fitness for purpose is the criteria for success, it should be possible to measure results in user-defined and business terms.
5) Agile projects benefit especially from good design
An ideal architecture for an agile project is modular and separates the components that are likely to remain stable and generic, and which may be invisible to the users, from those components which may be volatile, which need to be customized, and which are visible to users. A good agile architecture takes into account the need to test incrementally, to reflect conceptual models in the design of the system, to enable learning, to tolerate errors, to reuse components, to reconfigure for different kinds of users, to rescale as new users adopt the system, and also to facilitate evolution as new requirments emerge. Agility and good design principles are complementary and go hand in hand. One encourages the other.
Formation en management de projets, les fondamentaux
Atteindre les délais des projets, respecter les budgets, satisfaire les besoins des clients, répondre aux objectifs et respecter les exigences réglementaires
Les projets sont devenus si cruciaux pour l'innovation et le changement que les organisations peuvent atteindre des gains plus importants grâce à des investissements en gestion de projet que dans presque n'importe quelle autre activité de l'entreprise. Toutefois, les projets sont complexes, et présentent des défis uniques, ce qui signifie que le développement des compétences, l'adoption de bonnes pratiques et l’intensification de la coopération entre métiers ne se terminent jamais.
Cette formation présente des bonnes pratiques applicables à tout projet. Elle est adaptée à des chefs de projets chez des clients, des sponsors de projets, des chefs de projets chez des fournisseurs de prestations et des membres des équipes projets.
♦ Utiliser des bonnes pratiques en management de projets pour tirer la meilleure partie de vos projets
♦ Optimiser l’organisation et la mise en œuvre au sein des équipes et entre les partenaires du projet
♦ Intégrer la gestion des contenus du projet, les délais, les coûts, les risques, la qualité, la communication et la satisfaction des parties prenantes
Ian Stokes a une grande expérience en gestion de projets dans de nombreux secteurs industriels où le changement et l'innovation sont des facteurs clés de la réussite. Il a été consultant, animateur et chef de projet, directeur des méthodes et de la qualité, et formateur au sein de grandes et de petites organisations.
Etudier la nature d’un projet et de la gestion de projet
- Développer un aperçu de la nature de la gestion de projets
- Comprendre le rôle des chefs de projet
- Reconnaître les enjeux typiques d’un projet
Identifier les causes des réussites et des échecs des projets
- Etablir une démarche projet pour atteindre des résultats plus maîtrisés
- Schématiser la logique d’un projet
- Comprendre le cycle de vie et les étapes de processus
Définir les limites des projets dans un but d’atteindre les objectifs opérationnels
- Décrire et positionner le projet, rendre explicites les facteurs clés de réussite, préciser les objectifs principaux et évaluer les risques
- Définir le périmètre du projet, le calendrier, le budget et les objectifs les plus importants
- S’entendre sur ce qui détermine des résultats satisfaisants et la façon dont la qualité sera mesurée et gérée
Etude de cas: définir une mission pour le projet (charte, lettre d’opportunité)
Effectuer une analyse des parties prenantes, des risques et des avantages
- Analyser l'influence, le soutien et l'impact sur les principaux acteurs et parties prenantes
- Analyser les risques et identifier les stratégies de réponse
- Préparer un plan de communication afin de gérer les avantages et les attentes de la clientèle
Exercice: effectuer une analyse des parties prenantes et une analyse des risques, produire un plan de communication et un plan de gestion de risques
Structurer et organiser le projet
- Développer la structure de découpage et de répartition du travail et définir des lots de tâches
- Affecter des responsabilités en utilisant une matrice de responsabilité
- Développer des stratégies visant à établir l'estimation du coût global et la durée estimée du travail
Étude de cas: Mettre en place la structure de découpage des tâches
Élaborer un plan projet pour ploter le projet
- Développer un plan de projet suffisamment compréhensif pour gérer le projet
- Définir les principales activités du projet, déterminer les dépendances et établir le chemin critique
- Planifier un calendrier en fixant des échéances claires dès le début du projet
Exercice: comprendre les méthodes d'analyse du chemin critique
Étude de cas: bâtir le plan projet, chiffrer le budget du projet et les plans subsidiaires, et établir un référentiel pour le projet
Développer son style de management pour obtenir des meilleurs résultats au sein d’une équipe projet
- Reconnaître les styles individuels qui contribuent à un travail d'équipe efficace
- Développer les attributs du travail d'équipe qui facilitent la haute performance
- Comprendre la gestion d'une équipe tout au long du cycle de vie du projet
- Découvrez des techniques pour résoudre les conflits et gérer la pression dans une équipe de projet
Exercice: travail en group sur le développement d'une équipe et la gestion des conflits
Gérer efficacement un projet, contrôler son avancement vers les résultats visés et maximiser le retour sur investissement
- Mettre en place un format et un processus pour formaliser les demandes de modification, les problèmes et les incidents
- Explorer des critères pour la prise de décision et mise en œuvre des changements
- Gérer efficacement un projet et maîtrise l’avancement afin d’atteindre les objectifs
- Évaluer et gérer la performance du projet à intervalles réguliers
Étude de cas: décider des réponses appropriées aux demandes de modification et gérer l'avancement du projet
Élaborer des principes et des méthodes pour gérer les partenaires (gestionnaires, collègues, fournisseurs) pour optimiser l'équipe de travail du projet
- Développer les bonnes pratiques pour l’externalisation des tâches projets
- Utilisez des jalons, des méthodes, des mesures et des revues, pour rendre plus visible l’état du projet et pour piloter la réalisation des livrables
- Etablir et développer des compétences en communication pour améliorer la coopération en équipes de projet
- Analyser les forces et les faiblesses, les opportunités et les menaces à l'objectif essentiel
Débat de discussion: gestion et organisation des partenaires des projets
Focaliser sur les démarches qui permettent d'améliorer et d'accélérer vos projets
- Évaluer les initiatives émergentes pour l'amélioration, l'accélération, l'optimisation et la gestion du périmètre du projet, les coûts et le délais
- Élaborer des tactiques pour optimiser la gestion personnelle du temps et des motivations
- Identifier et répondre aux motivations divergentes des individus dans l'équipe
- Adopter une communication appropriée et des répondes adaptées pour gérer ces différences
Exercice: réponses à un questionnaire d'auto-évaluation
Clore bien le projet, repérer rapidement des échecs potentiels, et capitaliser les réussites
- Clôturer le projet en tenant compte des bases contractuelles, réglementaires et administratives
- Apprendre de ses réussites et de ses échecs, développer la maturité en conduite de projets
Exercice: revue de la clôture du projet à partir de points de vue différents
Le cours est base sur une étude de cas, deux autres cas, des activités et des jeux pédagogiques.
Avantages de la formation
- Une solide fondation en management de projets
- Des compétences et des comportements associés à des bonnes pratiques
- Une confiance renforcée dans la maitrise du cycle de vie du projet
- Des échanges entre des participants d’expériences différentes
- Des idées enrichies et développées
- La pratique de méthodes concrètes
Division of Labor is not Optimization
The most effective companies I’ve ever worked with are those in which the engineers understand marketing and marketing understands engineering.
Now, why should this be so extraordinary, or so unusual? We could substitute designers for engineers and finance for marketing; or developers and users, production and projects, operations and sales.
Why do we focus so obsessively on division of labor, with the end result that only one person at the top of the tree can see the whole picture?
It isn’t all about FW Taylor and Adam Smith’s division of labor. It’s because we believe that specialization keeps things simple; simple and stupid is easy to manage and ‘easy to manage’ is easier to optimize. And that’s where we lose the plot.
You may have optimized a process, but you haven’t optimized the organization. Now you’re on the highest peak in the vicinity, but you’re not at the top of the world. And that’s where a world class company needs to be.
I searched the web for “Division of labor isn’t optimization” and other similar versions, in English and American.
Finding developers that understand the business and managers that understand the technology; everyone recognizes that this a key to success, but you don’t find it much in practice, except amongst entrepreneurs.
So, let’s start here …. Business understanding, curiosity and communication. Let’s go !
Outils et mĂ©thodes de facilitation de projets
Vous avez besoin d'une diversité de techniques, d'outils, de méthodes et de modèles pour animer une équipe, prendre les décisions qui s'imposent et réussir le projet. Tout peut arriver et vous avez besoin d'être préparé.
Cette boite à outils vous aide à gérer votre projet, de planifier et de livrer vos ateliers, à utiliser des méthodes créatives de résolution de problèmes, d'echauffer des sessions de travail en groupe, de mobiliser et d'alimenter le groupe en énergie, de promouvoir la qualité et de soutenir la prise de décisions.
Vous pouvez vouloir animer un atelier lors d'un projet pour plusieurs raisons, comme par example: définir la portée ou le contenu du projet, spécifier les besoins fonctionnels, pratiquer une revue de projet, réaliser une vérification de l'état d'avancement, ou prendre des décisions collectives.
Une réunion ou un atelier doit être organisé avec soin et imagination, afin d'être efficace, de bien utiliser le temps disponible, de générer de l'energie et stimuler la participation.
Voici un premier document à télécharger qui peut servir comme un cahier de travail lors d'un projet: Cahier de travail.
Ici vous pouvez télécharger des activités et des exercices (lien a corriger) à utiliser
(signalez moi au irstokes @ metanaction . com si vous êtes intéressés par des versions en Français.)
Des activités de formation en gestion de projets (version anglaise), Skills and Principles, Methods and Techniques, Innovation, Value and Performance, sont publiées par Ashgate et sont aussi disponibles pour acheter dans un ensemble de trois volumes.
Si vous êtes intéressé par des versions en Français de ces matériaux, n'hésitez pas à me contacter avec le formulaire de contacts.
Flying Eggs Micro-Project
This classic creative micro-project will provide an enthralling team experience and lots of learning about teams and customer-focused development. Tried and tested, it's possibly exactly what you need to embed in the team-building or project kick-off meeting that you are planning.
Flying eggs is a micro-project which will give you great results when you are seeking a perspective on team-building, innovation, product design and development, or just ordinary project management. The task of protecting an egg from a drop of about two or three floors is interesting and challenging enough in itself.
The added value is in the scenario, materials and services with prices, realistic roles, project reviews and two products to produce within their team, such that you can develop themes such as portfolio management and customer-driven development.
Anyone who has worked on such a real creative project will recognise the experience described - the huge investment in energy, the intense commitment of each team member, the sharing of skills and insight, the creative synergies ... When people are grouped together and given a common objective in a challenging situation, something explosive seems to take place. The combination of a team, a common unique objective and a deadline is the catalyst which releases the energy.
The opportunity to gain experience and share learning about customer contact and creativity, design management and teamwork are unparalleled in such a short time as the two and a half hours necessary to perform this exercise, present the results and obtain feedback.
Stories and Puzzles
Agile in Action
Methods in Action
AgilePM IntĂ©gration entreprenante vendredi 20 sept du 9h Ă 17h
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Making a Success of a New Methodology
People often ask me: “How can we introduce a project management methodology into our organisation?” And I interpret this as meaning that the methodology should be usable, useful and also used. After all, a methodology is not an end in itself, unless for zealots, nor a doctrine or a dogma, except for bigots.
1) Make the process attractive by aligning with people’s motivations
In order to make a process or a methodology successful, i.e. workable, worthwhile and working, there’s one key word of advice: First, make it pleasant and attractive to use, and avoid it being laborious or painful.
Most organisations seek to maximise gain and to target effectiveness, but organisms also seek to minimise pain and to avoid calamities. It is in fact most effective to reduce the pain and to ensure that the methodology is gratifying to use and creates a sense of fulfilment.
Sales people may recognise the reference to the “pain chain”, which is a way to identify and to respond to the pain felt at different levels in an organisation. How can this be done?
First of all, to appreciate the sources of pain it is helpful to understand the nature of motivation, and above all the factors that lead to demotivation:
Results-driven and Action-oriented motivation
People in projects are clearly motivated by the desire to achieve results and very frequently it is their prime motivation. This also means avoiding failure, because although we reason in terms of the number of projects that succeed, projects can go wrong in so many different ways, and furthermore the project portfolio can disappoint in very many ways.
For example, the point in time when a project fails is a vital consideration. There is all the difference in the world between a project that gets stopped early at little cost and one that fails after significant investment. And even when the sunk cost is important, there may yet be lessons learned for future projects.
The priorities within projects and between projects also make a significant difference. It may be better for one project to be delivered late, but with all the deliverables intact, whilst another may sacrifice the least important deliverables because it must absolutely be finished in time. Similarly, an organisation may prefer several projects to be slightly late, rather than one project being very late, whilst another prefers to abandon one project to allow the others to finish on time.
For a methodology to be successful, people must want to use it, they need to feel a sense of ownership and they must believe that it will improve the quality of their work and allow work to become more enjoyable.
Relationship-pulled and Change-pushed motivation
Many people are attracted by the relational aspects of projects, the opportunities to work with colleagues and experts from different departments and backgrounds, to have close contact with decision makers in the company, and to work with customers and suppliers.
Nevertheless, whilst people appreciate intense teamwork at times, too many meetings are tiring. People need some time for themselves in order to be comfortable and productive. Therefore, by removing the causes of stress – such as isolation and exhaustion – that can derive from too little or too much interaction, the methodology can be made much more serviceable and durable.
Furthermore, one of the main causes of stress is the feeling of not having control over events, circumstances or process. Participants are more likely to appreciate the process when they are empowered to simplify or to adjust the details of the methodology according to the specific aspects of their project. For example, some projects are focused on customers, others on suppliers; some are change pushed, and others market pulled, and so on.
In any case, a methodology can be easier to apprehend, to assimilate and to apply if there is a simplified version that puts all participants on the same page at a high level, a sort of red line through the process containing only the permanent elements, which could be kept to a strict minimum.
Technology-focused and Ideas-centred motivation
People are attracted to the technology in projects, to the chance to do something new and different from their routine activities, to innovate, to experiment and to develop ideas into action. If they feel that they spend too much project time on paperwork and administrative tasks, energy and enthusiasm subsides quickly. Bureaucracy is perceived as being either a necessary evil or an unnecessary burden becomes it imposes control and constraints; it dissipates innovation and enervates.
The motivation to develop ideas and to share knowledge can be stifled by mistrust. Excessive control communicates lack of trust. At the same time, creative people must comprehend that the process of discovery and innovation is predisposed to all kinds of errors and false assumptions, including those that can be prevented by rigorous checking and review. It is about getting the right balance, and ensuring that people respect and value the inspection, validation and verification, and acceptance process that lie within any project methodology.
An attractive methodology should not waste people’s time, force them to spend time looking for stuff, trying to understand the interface, correcting errors, linking incompatible formats, trying to understand a system’s reasoning instead of using one’s intuition, sitting through interminable screens, waiting whilst menus advertise themselves, re-editing or inputting information over and over again, explaining what one has done instead of this being evident from the data, learning someone else’s coding structure. In two words: “Good design” is essential for good methodology.
Structure-based and Process-leaning motivation
A methodology provides structure, facilitates organisation, enables the participants of a project to work fluently and fluidly together, to achieve synergy and to synchronise their contributions. Thus the methodology can help to generate order and to demonstrate control. However, a failure to implement a convoluted and complicated process can be profoundly disturbing because instead it creates the impression of a lack of control.
It is important that the evidence for the methodology being used is made visible. Methods in action should not be invisible. Some of the performance indicators can be results-oriented, such as the status of deliverables, but others should be process-driven such as test coverage and depth of testing. The most important indicators, such as the opinions and understanding of the team members, are not usually the most measurable.
Ideally, the status of the process, the extent to which it is being applied and the results that are being achieved should all be as visible as the pie-charts, histograms and work-charts in a factory.
2) Work with pioneers to create credibility for the new methodology
There is only one way to ensure credibility for a methodology and that is to show that it works. Since, the methodology cannot be working already, before it has been introduced, this means that a credible reference is needed. The most credible reference is in the same company, the same type of project, the same kind of team and in the same country. More likely and more often, this does not exist, because we have to start somewhere. Therefore we usually find ourselves looking for a credible reference outside the company and even outside the industry or outside the country.
The first users of a methodology, which is new to the company, or to the industry or the country, or even the world, are necessarily pioneers and they must act as champions of the new approach. Their defining characteristic is that they are not concerned about where the methodology has worked before. They are founders and innovators. They believe in the merits of the methodology, they believe in its potential and above all they believe in their own ability to make the methodology a success.
Pioneers need support. Their stakeholders and they themselves may be results-oriented, relationships-driven, technology focused and ideas-centred or structure-based. They are vulnerable to disillusion if their motivations are not satisfied and their fears are raised. Although they expect problems on the route to success, their moral can go up and down quite wildly and yet they do not want to reveal this, because they have a leadership spirit.
Pioneers should choose their projects carefully. In essence, to be a pioneer is to enjoy the process of overcoming the problems. To be a pioneer is to tread a new path and to cut a way through the undergrowth. But, not every initiative will be successful. And supporters are necessary, because support demonstrates that despite all of the impediments and the issues, success is signposted. Pioneers recognise that first time is not easy, but first time is worthwhile because to be ahead is to win the game.
Supporters can be executive sponsors, suppliers, customers, expert consultants and supporters can be part of a grassroots movement. Thus supporters can be both from inside or outside the organisation and support can be both top-down and bottom-up.
Supporters should also choose their pioneers carefully. More initiatives will be abandoned than will be adopted. This is the nature of innovation. Therefore, it’s better to take small steps, and to check the way ahead before continuing. In this way, the right initiatives are continued and the wrong ones are terminated early.
3) Enable pioneering work to become mainstream
For “new-stream” to become “main-stream” the pioneers and the supporters of the pioneers must convince the early-adopters. And the early-adopters must be convinced that the methodology is appropriate and credible. This requirs success on the first steps that are championed by the pioneers to be successful and to be supported. For example, there must be a suitable pilot project and a transitional hand-over period.
The pilot project should be appropriately typical and it should also be suitably challenging so that people do not just say, “It would have been successful anyway, without the methodology.” The early majority desire that impediments should be removed and issues resolved. Unlike the pioneers they do not relish problems and challenges for their own sake. Naturally, they will seek to avoid the pain of failure.
The early-adopters will requir relevant evidence, data, information and confirmation that the approach has worked elsewhere. They may be convinced by information from the same industry, or by examples from people doing the same kind of work and speaking the same language. The late-majority just wants the methodology to work and with minimum hassle.
By the time the laggards admit that they really ought to become involved, the methodology has become a reality and a success story. The laggards will be seeking adaptations and customisation. In a sense they are obliging the mainstream to prepare for the next round of innovation. Some laggards may even be pioneers in the next cycle.
4) Making it stick
The methodology will not take root, flourish and grow unless these criteria are satisfied:
- The methodology is pleasant to use and appeals to the motivations of stakeholders
- The methodology meets people’s primary motivation to avoid painful outcomes
- Suitable and motivated pioneers become engaged and receive adequate support
- The majority observes evidence of success that satisfies their motivational criteria
- There is visible evidence of success being achieved and motivations satisfied
Who can promote or make contributions?
Who must we “sell” on this project?
Who can help us to get additional resources?
Who will benefit?
What do we need by way of additional resources?
What techniques or methods can I use?
What is the best way to go about this?
What will be the first step?
What will make the project better?
Where should we start?
Where is resistance likely to be found?
Where should we “plant” seeds?
When should we introduce the plan?
When should we implement our ideas?
When should we revise our strategy?
Why should they buy this idea?
Why is this way better?
Why is the reaction what it is?
How can the project be improved?
How can we “test” the waters?
How can we better understand and respond to people’s questions?
How can we persuade people at the centres of influence?
Flying Eggs Micro Project
Steps to Synergy
Project Portfolio Activity
Four people in a bar
We find it easier to interpret information that is formatted in a way that plays to our intuition. Our minds are actually quite good at detecting cheats. It's an important survival instinct. This problem is surprisingly difficult until we reduce its abstraction and make it relate to the kind of situation for which we are wired. You'll see it first in its abstract version, and then in its real world example.
Micro-payments: is it a valid business model?
There are several web-based business models. Is micro-payments a valid alternative? Micro-payments can allow small payments for valuable intellectual property, which still preserve the generosity of the web, but without dependence on the advertising model.
The question is well addressed in this Stanford project on micro-payments
In my opinion at present, the predominant web-based business models are:
1) All web-site content is free and revenue is derived from data collection (i.e. via advertising based on consumer knowledge) and viral communication.
2) ‘Freemium’, (i.e. free, but pay for added premium value, which could be extra features, enhanced performance, better aesthetics, more user guidance…)
3) A join-up subscriber fee gives access to content, which is sometimes organised in categories according to the value of the subscription.
4) The web site is used as a shop window or as a marketing brochure, which is a supplement to traditional sales and marketing activities.
5) The web site is a service centre to support core activities and develop customer loyalty.
6) The web site as an integral part of the customer and supplier interface (i.e. in essence some effort and costs gets outsourced to customers and/or suppliers).
7) “Brand-me” aims to create a celebrity or brand effect with doses of excitement and ingenuity (it lies somewhere between the blog and the conference model, and often ties to a best seller.)
So the use of micro-payments is possibly an eighth model, and I'm sure there are many others.
Micro-payments compete against free, and like newspapers on the street compared to on-line newspapers, micro-payments can offer content and performance in an agreeable and easily accessible format.
(For example, Apple charges about 1€ or $1 for songs, even though people can download music for free elsewhere, but Apple aims to offer an aesthetic user experience, both on the ipod and on the itunes web site.)
However, the newspaper on-line subscription model has struggled, perhaps because of the aesthetic appeal of paper, the habit and convenience of picking up a paper in a newsagent or due to competition from free news sheets.
For the benefit of small content providers, I hope that micro-payments will grow, but only if it is sufficiently convenient and not all of the ingredients are there yet. It seems to me that it’s still a work in progress.
There is the issue of friction by creating road humps in the flow, surf, crawl and trawl across the Internet. Micro-payments also requirs people to become more accustomed to using a PayPal style account; or alternatively for pioneering credit approaches to develop such as payment via telephone credits, which already flourishes in Africa.
The search is on for the best mix of micro-payments and ‘freemium’ now.